Doing Urban Research (Applied Social Research Methods Series vol.33)

ISBN 13: 9780803939882
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The paper argues that the results show the value of applying the AHP model to understand the role of pull factors in urban tourism destination choice. As a single-destination case study, it is important that the findings of this research are evaluated against similar studies in other cities.

A limitation of this research is the fact that sub motives within major groups of pull-factor motives have not been explored in this study and this should be the subject of future, more detailed research. This research shows the value of applying an under-used methodology to understand urban tourist motivations and knowledge gained through applying this method will be of value to destination marketing organisations as well as to researchers conducting future studies. Bozic, S. Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here.

Social science fields of study usually have several sub-disciplines or branches, and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Anthropology is the holistic "science of man", a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences, humanities , and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments.

The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences.

The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology like some fields of history does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions.

Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences. The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".

The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology , whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.

Communication studies deals with processes of human communication , commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting.

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Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities, including "communication", "communication studies", "speech communication", "rhetorical studies", "communication science", " media studies ", "communication arts", " mass communication ", " media ecology ", and "communication and media science".

Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities. As a social science, the discipline often overlaps with sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, political science, economics, and public policy, among others. From a humanities perspective, communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece.

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The field applies to outside disciplines as well, including engineering, architecture, mathematics, and information science. Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment, or someone who has earned a degree in the subject. The classic brief definition of economics, set out by Lionel Robbins in , is "the science which studies human behavior as a relation between scarce means having alternative uses".

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Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is "the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants" and "the study of the financial aspects of human behavior". Economics has two broad branches: microeconomics , where the unit of analysis is the individual agent, such as a household or firm, and macroeconomics , where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole.

Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics, which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena, from normative economics , which orders choices and actions by some criterion; such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments. Since the early part of the 20th century, economics has focused largely on measurable quantities, employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Quantitative models, however, can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school. Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics , law , psychology , history , religion , marriage and family life, and other social interactions.

This paradigm crucially assumes 1 that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants, and 2 that "economic value" is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market arms' length transactions.

Social science

Rival heterodox schools of thought, such as institutional economics , green economics , Marxist economics , and economic sociology , make other grounding assumptions. For example, Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the investigation of exchange value , of which human labour is the source. The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism. Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgement and well-developed wisdom.

Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation see socialization. To educate means 'to draw out', from the Latin educare , or to facilitate the realization of an individual's potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy , a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology , philosophy , computer science , linguistics , neuroscience , sociology and anthropology.

The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development. For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling thus Mark Twain 's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education". Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography.

The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. This may involve cultural geography , transportation , health , military operations , and cities. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation and life, soil, oceans , water and landforms are produced and interact. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans. Geographers attempt to understand the Earth in terms of physical and spatial relationships.

The first geographers focused on the science of mapmaking and finding ways to precisely project the surface of the earth. In this sense, geography bridges some gaps between the natural sciences and social sciences. Historical geography is often taught in a college in a unified Department of Geography. Modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline, closely related to GISc , that seeks to understand humanity and its natural environment. The fields of urban planning , regional science , and planetology are closely related to geography. Practitioners of geography use many technologies and methods to collect data such as GIS , remote sensing , aerial photography , statistics , and global positioning systems GPS.

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History is the continuous, systematic narrative and research into past human events as interpreted through historiographical paradigms or theories. History has a base in both the social sciences and the humanities. In the United States the National Endowment for the Humanities includes history in its definition of humanities as it does for applied linguistics.

The Social Science History Association , formed in , brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history. The social science of law, jurisprudence , in common parlance, means a rule that unlike a rule of ethics is capable of enforcement through institutions. The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities, depending on one's view of research into its objectives and effects. Law is not always enforceable, especially in the international relations context.

It has been defined as a "system of rules", [22] as an "interpretive concept" [23] to achieve justice, as an "authority" [24] to mediate people's interests, and even as "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction". Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social science and the humanities. Laws are politics, because politicians create them.

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Current Anthropology. If you would like to contact us about accessing this content, click the button and fill out the form. Christine M. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. Ganzeboom , Netherlands Family Survey , Dept. Stephanie A.

Law is philosophy, because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas. Law tells many of history's stories, because statutes, case law and codifications build up over time. And law is economics, because any rule about contract , tort , property law , labour law , company law and many more can have long-lasting effects on the distribution of wealth. The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu , meaning something laid down or fixed [26] and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex.

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Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language. The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal, such as syntax the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences , semantics the study of meaning , morphology the study of the structure of words , phonetics the study of speech sounds and phonology the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language ; however, work in areas like evolutionary linguistics the study of the origins and evolution of language and psycholinguistics the study of psychological factors in human language cut across these divisions.

The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective focusing on language at a particular point in time , and a great deal of it—partly owing to the influence of Noam Chomsky —aims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language. However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis , social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context.

Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features, while some disciplines, like contact linguistics, focus on qualitative analysis. While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences, other areas, like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics , draw on the natural sciences. Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities, which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics. Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. Fields and subfields of political science include political economy , political theory and philosophy , civics and comparative politics , theory of direct democracy , apolitical governance, participatory direct democracy, national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, international relations , foreign policy , international law , politics, public administration , administrative behaviour, public law, judicial behaviour, and public policy.

Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of great powers and superpowers. Approaches to the discipline include rational choice , classical political philosophy, interpretivism , structuralism , and behaviouralism , realism , pluralism, and institutionalism.

Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents, interviews, and official records, as well as secondary sources such as scholarly articles are used in building and testing theories.

Empirical methods include survey research, statistical analysis or econometrics , case studies , experiments, and model building. Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase "political science" while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University. Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.

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